Since the early 00's it has become (nearly) impossible to determine in still or moving pictures what is an image of a human, imaged with a (movie) camera and what on the other hand is a simulation of an image of a human imaged with a simulation of a camera. When there is no camera and the target being imaged with a simulation looks deceptively like some real human, dead or living, it is a digital look-alike.
Now in the 2010's the equivalent thing is happening to our voices i.e. they can be stolen to some extent with the 2016 prototypes like w:Adobe Inc.'s w:Adobe Voco and w:Google's w:DeepMind w:WaveNet and made to say anything. When it is not possible to determine with human testing or testing with technological means what is a recording of some living or dead person's real voice and what is a simulation it is a digital sound-alike.
As of 2019 Symantec research knows of 3 cases where digital sound-alike technology has been used for crimes.
Therefore it is high time to act and to criminalize both covert modeling of the human appearance and the covert modeling of the naked human voice!
Threats posed by covert modeling
Covert modeling poses growing threats to
- The right to be the only one that looks like me (compromised by digital look-alikes)
- The right to be the only one able to make recordings that sound like me (compromised by digital sound-alikes)
And these developments have various severe effects on the right to privacy, provability by audio and video evidence and deniability.